The poem is considered a poem "cycle" or "sequence" because it is made up of a collection of shorter poems. These poems are not meant to be read in isolation, but together as part of one cohesive longer work. Her poems seek to bear witness to the oppressive silence during that time. One day, a women in the crowd recognized her, and asked her to write a poem about the experience. In the poem, Akhmatova addresses many themes, including religion, the desperation and hopelessness of war, censorship and silencing, grief, and whether it is possible to maintain hope in the midst of darkness. The prison line is compared to an early mass in Dedication, as the prison waiters rise early and then congregate there.
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She tells how Akhmatova would write out her poem for a visitor on a scrap of paper to be read in a moment, then burnt in her stove. The poems were carefully disseminated in this way, but it is likely that many compiled in this manner were lost.
A ritual beautiful and bitter. In , Akhmatova started her Poem without a Hero, finishing a first draft in Tashkent , but working on "The Poem" for twenty years and considering it to be the major work of her life, dedicating it to "the memory of its first audience — my friends and fellow citizens who perished in Leningrad during the siege". On returning to Leningrad in May , she writes of how disturbed she was to find "a terrible ghost that pretended to be my city".
Kunitz and Hayward  She regularly read to soldiers in the military hospitals and on the front line; her later pieces seem to be the voice of those who had struggled and the many she had outlived.
She moved away from romantic themes towards a more diverse, complex and philosophical body of work and some of her more patriotic poems found their way to the front pages of Pravda. She was condemned for a visit by the liberal, western, Jewish philosopher Isaiah Berlin in , and Andrei Zhdanov publicly labelled her "half harlot, half nun", her work "the poetry of an overwrought, upper-class lady", her work the product of "eroticism, mysticism, and political indifference". He banned her poems from publication in the journals Zvezda and Leningrad, accusing her of poisoning the minds of Soviet youth.
Her surveillance was increased and she was expelled from the Union of Soviet Writers. A stately, grey-haired lady, a white shawl draped about her shoulders, slowly rose to greet us. Anna Akhmatova was immensely dignified, with unhurried gestures, a noble head, beautiful, somewhat severe features, and an expression of immense sadness. With the press still heavily controlled and censored under Nikita Khrushchev , a translation by Akhmatova was praised in a public review in , and her own poems began to re-appear in That same year Lev was released from the camps, embittered, believing that his mother cared more about her poetry than for him and that she had not worked hard for his release.
Isaiah Berlin predicted at the time that it could never be published in the Soviet Union. Sand on the bottom whiter than chalk, and the air drunk, like wine, late sun lays bare the rosy limbs of the pinetrees.
Sunset in the ethereal waves: I cannot tell if the day is ending, or the world, or if the secret of secrets is inside me again. In she was visited by Robert Frost ; Isaiah Berlin tried to visit her again, but she refused him, worried that her son might be re-arrested due to family association with the ideologically suspect western philosopher.
Her dacha in Komarovo was frequented by such poets as Yevgeny Rein and Joseph Brodsky , whom she mentored. She was becoming a representative of both the Soviet Union and Tsarist Russia, more popular in the s than she had ever been before the revolution, this reputation only continuing to grow after her death. She was moved to a sanatorium in Moscow in the spring of and died of heart failure on March 5, at the age of Thousands attended the two memorial ceremonies, held in Moscow and in Leningrad.
After being displayed in an open coffin, she was interred at Komarovo Cemetery in St. The legend of her life and unyielding passive resistance to what she regarded as unworthy of her country and herself, transformed her into a figure [ Work and themes[ edit ] Poem by Akhmatova on a wall in Leiden Akhmatova joined the Acmeist group of poets in with poets such as Osip Mandelstam and Sergey Gorodetsky , working in response to the Symbolist school, concurrent with the growth of Imagism in Europe and America.
It promoted the use of craft and rigorous poetic form over mysticism or spiritual in-roads to composition, favouring the concrete over the ephemeral. They contained brief, psychologically taut pieces, acclaimed for their classical diction, telling details, and the skilful use of colour.
Her early poems usually picture a man and a woman involved in the most poignant, ambiguous moment of their relationship, much imitated and later parodied by Nabokov and others. But [ Her lyrics are composed of short fragments of simple speech that do not form a logical coherent pattern.
Instead, they reflect the way we actually think, the links between the images are emotional, and simple everyday objects are charged with psychological associations. Like Alexander Pushkin, who was her model in many ways, Akhmatova was intent on conveying worlds of meaning through precise details. This was mainly due to the secret nature of her work after the public and critical effusion over her first volumes. The risks during the purges were very great. Many of her close friends and family were exiled, imprisoned or shot; her son was under constant threat of arrest, she was often under close surveillance.
Between and Akhmatova composed, worked and reworked the long poem Requiem in secret, a lyrical cycle of lamentation and witness, depicting the suffering of the common people under Soviet terror.
It was conspicuously absent from her collected works, given its explicit condemnation of the purges. The work in Russian finally appeared in book form in Munich in , the whole work not published within USSR until It represented, to some degree, a rejection of her own earlier romantic work as she took on the public role as chronicler of the Terror. This is a role she holds to this day. This long poem, composed between and , is often critically regarded as her best work and also one of the finest poems of the twentieth century.
Requiem - Poem by Anna Akhmatova
Нет, и не под чуждым небосводом, И не под защитой чуждых крыл,- Я была тогда с моим народом, Там, где мой народ, к несчастью, был. Как-то раз кто-то "опознал" меня. Тогда стоящая за мной женщина, которая, конечно, никогда не слыхала моего имени, очнулась от свойственного нам всем оцепенения и спросила меня на ухо там все говорили шепотом : - А это вы можете описать? И я сказала: Тогда что-то вроде улыбки скользнуло по тому, что некогда было ее лицом.
Анна Ахматова — Реквием (Поэма): Стих
Хотелось бы всех поименно назвать, Да отняли список, и негде узнать. Для них соткала я широкий покров Из бедных, у них же подслушанных слов. О них вспоминаю всегда и везде, О них не забуду и в новой беде, И если зажмут мой измученный рот, Которым кричит стомильонный народ, Пусть так же они поминают меня В канун моего поминального дня. А если когда-нибудь в этой стране Воздвигнуть задумают памятник мне, Согласье на это даю торжество, Но только с условьем — не ставить его Ни около моря, где я родилась: Последняя с морем разорвана связь, Ни в царском саду у заветного пня, Где тень безутешная ищет меня, А здесь, где стояла я триста часов И где для меня не открыли засов. Затем, что и в смерти блаженной боюсь Забыть громыхание черных марусь, Забыть, как постылая хлопала дверь И выла старуха, как раненый зверь.
Understanding the Poem Cycle "Requiem" by Anna Akhmatova
Overview[ edit ] The set of poems is introduced by one prose paragraph that briefly states how she waited for months outside Leningrad Prison, along with many other women, for just a glimpse of fathers, brothers or sons who had been taken away by the NKVD in Soviet Russia. My terror, oh my son. How long till execution? Kline, While the first set of poems relate to her personal life, the last set of poems are left to reflect on the voices of others who suffered losses during this time of terror. With each successive poem, the central figure experiences a new stage of suffering. Mute grief, growing disbelief, rationalization, raw mourning, and steely resolve are just a few that remain constant throughout the entire cycle. Since the topics chosen were controversial at the time, Requiem was written in but was not published.
She tells how Akhmatova would write out her poem for a visitor on a scrap of paper to be read in a moment, then burnt in her stove. The poems were carefully disseminated in this way, but it is likely that many compiled in this manner were lost. A ritual beautiful and bitter. In , Akhmatova started her Poem without a Hero, finishing a first draft in Tashkent , but working on "The Poem" for twenty years and considering it to be the major work of her life, dedicating it to "the memory of its first audience — my friends and fellow citizens who perished in Leningrad during the siege".