Only extracts are provided here and exclusively for the use of students of this course Extract from C. Describes major aspects of a mature industrial society. An anthropological perspective on different kinds of economic systems - from Carol Ember and Melvin Ember, Anthropology, 10th edition. Brief discussion of the growth of modern industry in India, from P.

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Origins[ edit ] English , the primary medium of higher education in India, remains inaccessible to even the literate majority of the country. Therefore, there is an urgent need to translate material in all fields like literary, technical, scientific and business etc.

Translation, thus, is seen not just as an instrument of democratizing and secularizing knowledge, but also of empowering languages and speech communities. NTM intends to establish translation as an industry in the country. Its main objectives include generation of translation tools such as dictionaries and thesauri ; development of software for translation, memory, etc. Bringing visibility to translators and translation activities by organizing book launches for translations; instituting prizes and fellowships; organizing Regional Festivals of Translation; book exhibitions, etc.

It is a committee of 25 members representing various sections of the academic community, ministerial bodies and publishing houses related to translation. NTM-PAC is supported by four sub-committees in matters related to copyrights and legal matters; selecting knowledge texts; fixing rates for translators, copy editors etc.

NTM Website in 23 languages[ edit ] NTM is in the process of establishing itself as the clearing house of all translation related activities in the country.

Interaction with the public is a requisite and NTM has developed its website www. NTM website introduces the Mission, its objectives, beneficiaries, and structure etc. Updates on list of books selected for translation, experts consulted, announcement of translation assignments etc. The Discussion Forum facilitates the users to discuss various topics like the books selected for translation in a subject, an existing translation, and terminology issues in Indian languages etc.

To know more about the books taken up for translation, visit - www. NRT is a databank wherein translators register themselves online. NRT is a searchable directory of translators, evaluators and discipline experts with classified information on profession, experience, languages known and expertise in translation, etc.

Lists of the most prescribed texts in Indian universities in various disciplines are generated out of the Knowledge Text Module, another major facet of NTM-databases. Two searchable database components have been created under it: Indian Universities Database and Knowledge Text Database.

Indian Universities Database furnishes information on courses, syllabi and textbooks etc. Knowledge Text Database provides complete details of the prescribed books.

University Boards can review the course details and syllabi structure of other universities before revising their curriculum. This may help in creating parity among universities of rural and urban regions. Control mechanisms have been incorporated to the database for concurrent access to shared data, for ensuring data integrity. NTM aims to increase the usability of the databases by making them both as web and standalone applications.

In fact, the project had begun before the coming of NTM. The work started in The NTM-Longman e-dictionary deals with , words, phrases and meanings; 78, head entries, 5, encyclopaedic entries, 54, phrases, over , examples and 26, synonyms, antonyms and related words.

The main aim of this project is to automate the translation of a given English sentence into Kannada. The front end is designed using Swings and back-end SQL. The dictionary is put into action using random access file. Since Hash tables are particularly efficient when the maximum number of entries can be predicted in advance, this technique is used to accomplish searching.

Collection classes are used as data storage structures. Dictionary of Translation Studies[ edit ] Dictionary of Translation Studies being prepared by NTM intends to serve as a companion to students and scholars interested in and associated with the discipline of Translation Studies.

It is a compilation of the technically charged terms used in the discipline. It endeavours to be a comprehensive dictionary, exhausting the technical terms used in Indian as well as western discourse of translation and also the terms used in the sub-domains of Translation Studies like Interpreting, Machine Translation, etc.

Training of evaluators will be a major component of the Certification of Translators Programme as a new system of grading translators will be introduced.


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It refers to both abiotic physical or non-living and biotic living environment. Environmental studies provide an approach towards understanding the environment of our planet and the impact of human life upon the environment. Definition of environment The term "environment" comes from the French word "environ" meaning "where about", "around", "surroundings. The environment is the complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political conditions that surround an individual or organism and that ultimately determine its form and the nature of its survival. It includes natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage of an organism. Environment regulates the life of the organisms including human beings. Types of Environment There are mainly three types of environment- 1.


(Book) Fundamentals Of Sociology By P.Gisbert



Fundamentals of Sociology


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