FALCEMIA PDF

The following are types of complications that can result from sickle cell disease: Severe anemia Anemia is a shortage of red blood cells. Sickle cells break easily. This separation of red blood cells is called chronic hemolysis. Red blood cells usually live about days. Sickle cells live for a maximum of 10 to 20 days. Hand-foot syndrome Hand-foot syndrome occurs when sickle-shaped red blood cells block blood vessels in the hands or feet.

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The following are types of complications that can result from sickle cell disease: Severe anemia Anemia is a shortage of red blood cells. Sickle cells break easily. This separation of red blood cells is called chronic hemolysis. Red blood cells usually live about days.

Sickle cells live for a maximum of 10 to 20 days. Hand-foot syndrome Hand-foot syndrome occurs when sickle-shaped red blood cells block blood vessels in the hands or feet.

This causes the hands and feet to swell. It can also cause ulcers in the legs. Swollen hands and feet are often the first sign of sickle cell anemia in babies. Splenic abduction Splenic sequestration is a blockage of splenic vessels by sickle cells. It causes a sudden and painful enlargement of the spleen. The spleen may have to be removed due to complications of sickle cell disease in an operation known as splenectomy.

Some patients with sickle cells will suffer enough damage to the spleen that it will shrink and stop working. This is called autosplenectomy. Patients without a spleen have an increased risk of infections with bacteria such as Streptococcus, Haemophilus and Salmonella species.

Stunted growth Stunting occurs often in people with SCD. Children are generally lower, but they regain their height as adults. Sexual maturation can also be delayed. This happens because the red blood cells of sickle cells can not supply enough oxygen and nutrients. Neurological complications Seizures, strokes, or even coma can be the result of sickle cell disease.

They are caused by brain blocks. You should seek immediate treatment. Eye problems Blindness is caused by obstructions in the vessels that irrigate the eyes. This can damage the retina. Ulcers on the skin Skin ulcers on the legs can occur if small vessels are blocked.

Heart disease and chest syndrome Because SCD interferes with the supply of oxygen in the blood, it can also cause heart problems that can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, and abnormal heart rhythms. These problems may occur earlier in patients with sickle cell syndrome. Lung damage makes it more difficult for the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can lead to more frequent sickle cell crises.

Priapism is a persistent and painful erection that can be seen in some men with sickle cell disease. This happens when the blood vessels in the penis are blocked. It can lead to impotence if it is not treated.

Gallstones Gallstones are a complication not caused by a blockage of the vessel. Instead, they are caused by the decomposition of the RBCs. A by-product of this decomposition is bilirubin. High levels of bilirubin can lead to gallstones. These are also called pigment stones. Sickle-cell syndrome Sickle cell syndrome is a serious type of sickle cell crisis. It causes severe pain in the chest and is associated with symptoms such as cough, fever, sputum production, difficulty breathing and low levels of oxygen in the blood.

The long-term prognosis for patients who have had sickle cell syndrome is worse than for those who have not had it. Diagnosis of falcemia All newborns in the United States are evaluated for sickle cell disease. The prenatal test looks for the sickle cell gene in its amniotic fluid.

In children and adults, one or more of the following procedures can also be used to diagnose sickle cell disease. Detailed history of the patient This condition often appears first as acute pain in the hands and feet.

Patients can also have: Severe pain in the bones. Painful enlargement of the spleen Growing problems. Ulcers of the legs. Heart problems. Your doctor may want to do a sickle cell anemia test if you have any of the symptoms listed above. Blood test Several blood tests can be used to diagnose falcemia: Blood counts may reveal an abnormal Hb level in the range of 6 to 8 grams per deciliter.

Blood films can show red blood cells that appear as irregularly contracted cells. Sickle solubility tests look for the presence of Hb S. Hb electrophoresis: is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of sickle cell disease. It measures the different types of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment There are several different treatments available for falcemia: Rehydration with intravenous fluids helps red blood cells return to a normal state.

Red blood cells are more likely to deform and take the sickle shape if you are dehydrated. An infection can also result as a complication of a crisis. Blood transfusions improve the transport of oxygen and nutrients as needed. The packed red blood cells are removed from donated blood and administered to patients. Supplemental oxygen is administered through a mask. It makes breathing easier and improves oxygen levels in the blood.

Pain medication is used to relieve pain during a sickle crisis. You may need over-the-counter medications or strong prescription pain medications such as morphine. Hydroxyurea: helps increase the production of fetal hemoglobin. It can reduce the number of blood transfusions.

Vaccines can help prevent infections. Patients tend to have less immunity. Bone marrow transplantation has been used to treat sickle cell anemia. Children under 16 who have serious complications and have a compatible donor are the best candidates. Home care There are things you can do at home to help your sickle cell symptoms: Use thermal pads to relieve pain.

Take folic acid supplements, as recommended by your doctor. Eat an adequate amount of fruits, vegetables and whole wheat grains. Doing so can help your body make more red blood cells. Drink more water to reduce the chances of sickle cell crisis. Exercise regularly and reduce stress to reduce crises, too. Contact your doctor immediately if you think you have any type of infection. Early treatment of an infection can prevent a full-blown crisis. Support groups can also help you deal with this condition.

When to call the doctor? Call or other emergency services immediately if you have sickle cell disease and one or more of the following symptoms are present: Difficulty breathing. Severe abdominal pain. Sudden weakness Sudden numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, fingers or feet even if it goes away on its own. Sudden poor balance and poor coordination when walking even if it goes away on its own.

Confusion even if it disappears by itself. Apology or inability to speak even if it goes away on its own. Sudden change in vision.

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que es la falcemia?

Prevention[ edit ] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends all people thinking of becoming pregnant be tested to see if they have thalassemia. When both are microcytic, their hemoglobin A2 concentrations are measured. If both have a concentration above 3. Main article: Management of thalassemia Mild thalassemia: people with thalassemia traits do not require medical or follow-up care after the initial diagnosis is made. They should avoid routine use of iron supplements ; iron deficiency can develop, though, during pregnancy or from chronic bleeding.

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