Definition[ edit ] Stated broadly, ethnomusicology may be described as a holistic investigation of music in its cultural contexts. When the field first came into existence, it was largely limited to the study of non-Western music—in contrast to the study of Western art music, which had been the focus of conventional musicology. It is agreed upon that ethnomusicologists look at music from beyond a purely sonic and historical perspective, and look instead at music within culture, music as culture, and music as a reflection of culture. History[ edit ] While the traditional subject of musicology has been the history and literature of Western art music , ethnomusicology was developed as the study of all music as a human social and cultural phenomenon. Oskar Kolberg is regarded as one of the earliest European ethnomusicologists as he first began collecting Polish folk songs in Nettl , Comparative musicology, the primary precursor to ethnomusicology, emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
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Definition[ edit ] Stated broadly, ethnomusicology may be described as a holistic investigation of music in its cultural contexts. When the field first came into existence, it was largely limited to the study of non-Western music—in contrast to the study of Western art music, which had been the focus of conventional musicology. It is agreed upon that ethnomusicologists look at music from beyond a purely sonic and historical perspective, and look instead at music within culture, music as culture, and music as a reflection of culture.
History[ edit ] While the traditional subject of musicology has been the history and literature of Western art music , ethnomusicology was developed as the study of all music as a human social and cultural phenomenon. Oskar Kolberg is regarded as one of the earliest European ethnomusicologists as he first began collecting Polish folk songs in Nettl , Comparative musicology, the primary precursor to ethnomusicology, emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The International Musical Society in Berlin in acted as one of the first centers for ethnomusicology.
The International Council for Traditional Music founded and the Society for Ethnomusicology founded are the primary international academic organizations for advancing the discipline of ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicologists have offered varying definitions of the field. More specifically, scholars debate what constitutes ethnomusicology. Bruno Nettl distinguishes between discipline and field, believing ethnomusicology is the latter. Some approaches reference "musical areas" like "musical synthesis in Ghana" while others emphasize "a study of culture through the avenue of music, to study music as social behavior.
The primary element that distinguishes ethnomusicology from musicology is the expectation that ethnomusicologists engage in sustained, diachronic fieldwork as their primary source of data. According to Merriam, some of these groups are "players of ethnic music," "music educators," "those who see ethnic music in the context of a global view of music, vis a vis, particularly, the study of Western "classical" music," "made up of persons with a variety of interests, all of which are in some sense "applied" like "professional ethnomusicologists," music therapists, the "musicologists" and the "anthropologist.
The instrument and the songs used when using it always have folkloric motifs. Folklore and folklorists were the precursors to the field of ethnomusicology prior to WWII. They laid a foundation of interest in the preservation and continuation of the traditional folk musics of nations and an interest in the differences between the musics of various nations.
Folklorists approached folklore through comparative methods, seeking to prove that folk music was simple but reflected the lives of the lower classes. Folkloric studies were partly motivated by nationalism and the search for national identities.
Southern and Eastern European composers incorporated folk music into their compositions to instil sentiments of nationalism in their audiences. These collectors feared that entire repertories were on the point of extinction, repertories that were thought a proper base for nationalist styles of art music. Early collectors were motivated by musical nationalism, theories of self-determination, and by hope for a musical rationale for a pan-Slavic identity…eastern Europeans explored their own linguistic setting, amassing large collections, thousands of song texts and, later, tunes, which they sought to classify and compare.
In North America, state folklore societies were founded in the early 20th century and were dedicated to the collection and preservation of Old World folksong, i. His interest in folk music began in , when he discovered that a large amount of native folk song survived in England and published Folk Songs from Somerset — After he studied traditional English folk song in England, he traveled to the Appalachia region with his collaborator Maud Karpeles of the United States of America three times between the years and and discovered around 1, English tunes and variants.
This region of the United States preserved these old folk songs because it was isolated from the city centers of the original thirteen colonies. A controversy in the field of musicology arose surrounding Negro Spirituals. Richard Wallaschek claimed that Negro Spirituals were merely imitations of European song, starting the debate on the subject. Erich von Hornbostel concluded that African and European musics were constructed on different principles and therefore could not be combined.
The white origin theory argued that black music had been influenced by Anglo-American song and constituted an integral part of the British tradition. Melville J. Herskovits and his student Richard A. European and African music…have many features in common, among them diatonic scales and polyphony.
Lomax thought that all folk song styles vary with, and can be compared using, several categories, which include: productive range, political level, level of stratification of class, severity of sexual mores, balance of dominance between male and female, and the level of social cohesiveness. Comparative Musicology[ edit ] Comparative musicology is known as the cross-cultural study of music. Similarly to comparative linguistics, comparative musicology seeks to classify music of global cultures, illustrate their geographic distribution, explain universal musical trends, and understand the causation concerning the creation and evolution of music.
Ellis, whose academic process was founded in cross-cultural comparative studies. His work primarily focused on the transcription of nearly pieces of Armenian, Turkish, and Kurdish folk music. Ellis , who focused primarily on developing the cents system, was emerging as the foundation of the comparative elements of musicology.
In addition, his studies focused on testing his hypothesis of perceived fusion of tones. Following the Second World War , issues regarding the ethical contexts of comparative musicology began to emerge. As comparative musicology was founded primarily in Europe, most scholars based their comparisons in Western music.
In an effort to adjust the Western bias present in their studies, academics such as Jaap Kunst began adjusting their approaches in analysis and fieldwork to become more globally focused. Beginnings and early history[ edit ] Ethnomusicology has evolved both in terminology and ideology since its formal inception in the late 19th century. While studying in Berlin at Frederick William University and attending the International Music Society, Vardapet transcribed over pieces of music.
In his notes, he emphasized cultural and religious elements as well as social aspects of music and poetry. Inspired by these thoughts, many Western European nations began to transcribe and categorize music based on ethnicity and culture.
Inspired by these thoughts, many Western European nations began to put many ethnic and cultural pieces of music onto paper and separate them. In , Mantle Hood established the Institute of Ethnomusicology at the University of California at Los Angeles, largely legitimizing the field and solidifying its position as an academic discipline. Alan Merriam classified these ethnomusicological participants in four groups:  1 Performers of ethnic music, including anyone at all who learns to play an instrument from another culture: This group grew considerably during the s due to increased awareness of and interest in ethnic music, partly assisted by the dissemination of records.
These performers range from self-taught amateurs to experienced graduates of university world music programs. These teachers are not necessarily ethnomusicologists, but are nonetheless advancing some of the aims of the field. During this time, the discipline of ethnomusicology experienced a shift of focus away from musical data, such as pitch and formal structure, toward humans and human relationships.
The incorporation of theoretical frameworks from the field of anthropology also led to an increasingly welcoming attitude towards accepting yet more fields of study, such as linguistics and psychology, into the broader pursuit of understanding music as it functions in or "as" culture.
Throughout this decade, the tensions regarding comparative approaches continued to come into question in ethnomusicological circles. Historically, Western field workers dubbed themselves experts on foreign music traditions once they felt they had a handle on the music, but these scholars ignored differences in worldview, priority systems, and cognitive patterns, and thought that their interpretation was truth.
In particular, ethnomusicologist Timothy Rice called for a more human-focused study of ethnomusicology,  putting emphasis on the processes that bind music and society together in musical creation and performance.
The ethnomusicologist and his or her culture of study have a bidirectional, reflexive influence on one another in that it is possible not only for observations to affect the observer, but also for the presence of the observer to affect what they observe. The awareness of the nature of oral tradition and the problems it poses for reliability of source came into discussion during the s. The meaning of a particular song is in the kind of flux associated with any oral tradition, each successive performer bringing his or her own interpretation.
Several definitions of popular music exist but most agree that it is characterized by having widespread appeal. Peter Manuel adds to this definition by distinguishing popular music by its association with different groups of people, performances by musicians not necessarily trained or intellectual, and dispersion through broadcasting and recording. Popular music can operate less deliberately and focuses on creating a general effect or impression, usually focusing on emotion.
In the case of rock music, while the genre may have grown out of politicized forces and another form of meaningful motivation, the corporate influence over popular music became integral to its identity that directing public taste became increasingly easier.
However, because popular music assumes such a corporatized role and therefore remains subject to a large degree of standardization, ambiguity exists whether the music reflects actual cultural values or those only of the corporate sector seeking economic profit.
From the fame and economic success surrounding such superstars, subcultures continued to arise, such as the rock and punk movements, only perpetuated by the corporate machine that also shaped the musical aspect of popular music. Musical interaction through globalization played a huge role in ethnomusicology in the s. There are two sides to this globalization of music: on one hand it would bring more cultural exchange globally, but on the other hand it could facilitate the appropriation and assimilation of musics.
Ethnomusicologists have approached this new combination of different styles of music within one music by looking at the musical complexity and the degree of compatibility. This Westernization and modernization of music created a new focus of study; ethnomusicologists began to look at how different musics interact in the s. Bruno Nettl identifies Westernization and modernization as two concurrent and similar cultural trends that served to help streamline musical expression all over the world.
While creeping globalization had an undeniable effect on cultural homogeneity, it also helped broaden musical horizons all over the world. Rather than simply lamenting the continuing assimilation of folk music of non-western cultures, many ethnomusicologists chose to examine exactly how non-western cultures dealt with the process of incorporating western music into their own practices to facilitate the survival of their previous traditions.
Diaspora populations such as the Punjab population in England were studied due to the characteristics of their music showing signs of the effects of global media. Their music, like many other music of displaced cultures, was made up of elements from the folk music of their culture along with the popular music of their location.
Through this process the idea of transnationalism in music occurred. Its differences from Western music are often considered deficiencies,[ citation needed ] and the emphasis on "African rhythm" prevalent throughout music scholarship prevents accurate comparison of other musical elements such as melody and harmony. Influenced by postcolonial thought theories, Agawu focuses on deconstructing the Eurocentric intellectual hegemony surrounding understanding African music and the notation of the music itself.
Overall, Agawu implores scholars to search for similarities rather than differences in their examinations of African music, as a heightened exploration of similarities would be much more empowering and intellectually satisfying.
The actual complexity and sophistication of African music goes unexplored when scholars simply talk about it within these categories and move on. Agawu also calls for the direct empowerment of postcolonial African subjects within music scholarship, in response to attempts to incorporate native discourses into scholarship by Western authors that he believes have led to inaccurate representation and a distortion of native voices.
Agawu worries of the possible implementation of the same Western ideals but with an "African" face, "in what we have, rather, are the views of a group of scholars operating within a field of discourse, an intellectual space defined by Euro-American traditions of ordering knowledge".
Historical Approaches[ edit ] The historical approach in ethnomusicology is a trend that believes in understanding the past in order to understand the present. It has been long recognized as an important part of ethnomusicology,   but is now an increasingly important subfield.
The ILAM is a repository of thousands of recordings made since , recordings which are mostly open access online. The gold coast police band, colonial record keeping, and a tour of Great Britain". This project was special because it relied on archival sources of data, which according to Garcia, is not a traditional practice in ethnomusicology. Naoko Terauchi was also awarded for historical research. Interdisciplinary and innovative research[ edit ] The creative and interdisciplinary ethnomusicologists of today are consistently delving into new realms of ethnomusicology that could have never been predicted 30 years ago, much less incorporated into a wholistic definition of the field.
Bonnie McConnell published a paper in about musical participation and health education in the Gambia McConnell Music can be informative, and make informational events entertaining, and if successfully used to advance polio vaccination, can save lives.
CANTOMETRICS AN APPROACH TO THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF MUSIC PDF
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Cantometrics: an approach to the anthropology of music (Lifelong Learning, Vol. XLVI, No. 57)
Cantometrics: an approach to the anthropology of music (Lifelong Learning, Vol. XLVI, No. 57)