Plagas, , Platypus cylindrus Fab. Coleoptera: Platypodidae transports Biscogniauxia mediterranea, agent of cork oak charcoal canker M. LIMA, E. SOUSA Severe outbreaks of the ambrosia beetle Platypus cylindrus have been reported in Portuguese cork oaks stands for nearly three decades, mainly in trees recently decorked. Simultaneously, the incidence of charcoal canker caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea became alarming.
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Plagas, , Platypus cylindrus Fab. Coleoptera: Platypodidae transports Biscogniauxia mediterranea, agent of cork oak charcoal canker M. LIMA, E. SOUSA Severe outbreaks of the ambrosia beetle Platypus cylindrus have been reported in Portuguese cork oaks stands for nearly three decades, mainly in trees recently decorked.
Simultaneously, the incidence of charcoal canker caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea became alarming. The great abundance of inoculum on colonized parts of host trees and the likelihood that spores might be vectored and inoculated by insects constitutes the basis of the hypothesized association between the oak pinhole borer and B.
This assay undoubtedly proves the specific transport of the fungal propagules by P. Key words: Ambrosia beetle, charcoal disease, Quercus suber, mycangia, symbiosis. The principal am- pest of cork oak stands in Portugal and brosia fungi are Raffaelea spp.
The time between onset may have arisen. Taking into consideration of the first symptoms to death can be as that charcoal canker caused by Biscogniauxia short as 3 months to one year and a half, de- mediterranea de Not.
SOUSA spreading the inoculum in oak stands. Thus, or death were assessed daily for 4 months the goal of this work was to ascertain the after inoculation.
The length of stem lesions transportation of B. Fungal isolations of the discolored cork oak and the effect of phytotoxic com- sapwood of each newly dead or wilted pounds on disease development. Samsun and consisted of injecting by P. The Ribatejo province, two main cork producing control leaves were infiltrated with water and regions of Portugal. The tests were repeated twice with two emerged adults were captured in fine mesh replicates each. Symptoms were assessed on nets, attached to the log with a silicone tobacco leaves two weeks after infiltration joint.
Each log was cut to follow one com- using a scale based on the presence of lesions plete gallery. The samplings were repeated from chlorotic to necrotic 0- symptomless; during , and One hundred 1- chlorotic spots; 2- almost necrotic spots; insects per year were aseptically dissected 3- necrotic spots. Results were analyzed with iris scissors under a stereo binocular through the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis microscope to obtain their mycangia and test or analysis of variance ANOVA , with parts of the exoskeleton elytra.
Statistical ing the fungi from tunnel walls, sections of analyses were carried out using the software the gallery system where the larvae graze on Statistica 6 StatSoft, Inc. Symptoms wilting ris, in Italy AJ PLAGAS, 37, length variation was observed in ITS ampli- cessfully sequenced were submitted to the cons, whose average length was nu- GenBank nucleotide sequences databases as cleotides.
The sequence data that were suc- accessions FR and FR A B Figure 1. Platypus cylindrus: A. Biscogniauxia mediterranea anamorph: A. Light micrographs; B. No statistically significant differences between season inoculation and Results obtained in the present study con- symptoms appearance were found firm the specific transport of B. These results galleries. The fungus was re-isolated from the isolates to B.
In the tobacco leaf toxicity assay, the Fungal extracts exhibited phytotoxic activi- compounds obtained from B. The en- Figure 3. Pathogenicity tests on 1-year-old cork oak seedlings: A. Being al- even when the attacks of the beetles yield- ready inside the host, the fungus can rapidly ing the fungus are aborted.
Platypus cylindrus Fab. Coleoptera: Platypodidae transporta Biscog- niauxia mediterranea, el agente del chancro carbonoso del alcornoque. Plagas, Al mismo tiempo, la incidencia de la enfermedad causada por Biscogniauxia mediterranea se ha tornado alarmante.
Palabras clave: insecto ambrosia, chancro carbonoso, Quercus suber, micangios, simbiosis. A Serra e o Homem. Lisboa, press. Identifica- Plant Pathology. Physiological responses of cork oak and effect of different ecological factors on distribu- and holm oak to infection by fungal pathogens in- tion of the fungus. Mycologia, Biscopyran, a Phy- NI, A. Prod, In Atti del mediterranea. Silva Lusitana, Terzo Congresso Nazionale di Selvicoltura.
Molecular phy- Revista cologie de Platypus cylindrus Fab. New Aspects of Platy- Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with cork pus cylindrus Fab. Influence of water F.
Fiche de Biscogniauxia
Scale bar represents percentage of similarity. Figure 3 Analysis of Biscogniauxia mediterranea total isolates. Discussion In the present study, a high genetic variability of B. Individually, the MSP-PCR primers profiles showed a high degree of diversity among isolates from each sampled stroma, and a joint analysis of all isolates did not reveal clustering according to the different stroma. The use of combined MSP-PCR profiles has strengthened these observations, highlighting the vast genetic diversity among isolates. The occurrence of high genetic variability of B.
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