ASTM E1476 PDF

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. It describes the general requirements, methods, and procedures for the nondestructive identi?

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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. It describes the general requirements, methods, and procedures for the nondestructive identi?

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For speci? Referenced Documents 2. Current edition approved May 10, Published January Originally published as E — Last previous edition E — Terminology 3. This involves the use of standard quality assurance practices and procedures throughout the various stages of manufacturing and processing, at warehouses and materials receiving, and during fabrication and?

These practices typically involve standard chemical analyses and physical tests to meet product acceptance standards, which are slow. Several pieces from a production run are usually destroyed or rendered unusable through mechanical and chemical testing, and the results are used to assess the entire lot using statistical methods.

Statistical quality assurance methods are usually effective; however, mixed grades, off-chemistry, and nonstandard physical properties remain the primary causes for claims in the metals industry.

A more comprehensive veri? Nondestructive means are available to supplement conventional metals grade veri? They are quite often used in the?

Spectrometric analysis instruments respond to the presence and percents of alloying constituents. The electromagnetic eddy current and thermoelectric methods, on the other hand, are among those that respond to properties in the sample that are affected by chemistry and processing, and they Copyright? In this guide, the spectrometric methods are classi? It summarizes the operating principles of each method, provides guidance on where and how each may be applied, gives when applicable the precision and bias that may be expected, and assists the investigator in selecting the best candidates for speci?

Background 5. These required tests result in the sacri? Nondestructive grade veri? In-line electromagnetic tests may be used to indicate the consistency of production. Any deviation from the norms set for the acceptance band will result in automatic alarms, kick-out, or other means of alerting production personnel of a problem.

Thus alerted, the mill can determine the cause for the alarm and take corrective action. Portable optical emission spectrometry units may be used to determine the concentrations of critical elements without having to resort to slow physical and chemical analyses. A quality assurance program combining conventional measurements with suitable nondestructive methods can provide effective and timely information on product composition and physical properties.

This will result in improved quality 2 and yield; savings in time, labor, and material; and reduced? This guide provides speci? The spectrometric and thermoelectric techniques examine only the outermost surfaces of the sample or material. As a result, for grade veri? However, grinding may affect the thermoelectric response. The spectrometric methods require physical contact and often some surface preparation.

The electromagnetic method, however, does not require contact and very often is suited for on-line, automatic operation. The thermoelectric method, although requiring contact, responds to many of the same parameters that in? Both respond to chemical composition, processing, and treatments that affect the physical and mechanical properties of the product.

Nondestructive methods for indicating the mechanical properties of a metal are beyond the scope of this guide. The selection of suitable candidates for a speci? These include the precision and bias necessary for the application and practical considerations such as product con?

General Procedures 6. Often prescribed by materials speci? Quantitative methods employ coupon standards that are representative of the metals or alloy compositions to be veri? The indirect methods, particularly those that respond to physical properties as well as composition, require reference standards that will represent the material speci?

Coupon reference standards or product reference standards, or both, may be selected as required. They are available commercially in sets, singly, or to speci? They are useful for instrument calibration, determining separability among metals, and? They are not intended to re? E 6. Ideally, three or more product reference standards covering the mean, plus two or more covering the extremes, should be obtained, suitably catalogued, and marked for proper identi?

Coupon reference standards are used to calibrate and set up quantitative spectrometric or qualitative thermoelectric and chemical spot check, etc. Rod, bar, wire, and tubular product reference standards are used almost exclusively for the qualitative methods, such as the electromagnetic, electrical conductivity, triboelectric, and spark tests.

These are fabricated from the product being manufactured, from samples with compositions and physical properties veri? Product standard parameters must be veri? Such known variables must be used to determine? This is of particular importance when using the electromagnetic method.

Composition, size, processing, surface condition,? To a lesser degree, this is also true for the thermoelectric method. For the other methods, size, con? If some surface metal removal is necessary as it is for spectrometric examinations , the amount of removal, means of removal, and removal location on the test piece must be speci?

For electromagnetic examinations, the test piece should be positioned in the same manner relative to the test coil as is the product standard sample.

Failure to control the test variables can result in the misidenti? Meter readings, oscilloscope patterns, digital signals, and colored spots from a reagent in chemical spot check testing are 3 typical examples.

On instruments with digital or cathode ray tube displays, it is common practice to show the position and extent of adjustable gates for the setting of automatic alarm circuits. Both of these are adjustable. They are designed for use in automatic or operator-assisted systems to indicate when a product falls outside the acceptance limits, as well as to indicate whether it falls on the high or the low side. Similarly, instruments may be equipped with a computer buss interface for electronic data processing.

The decision as to how re? Such decisions should be handled on an individual basis. These X-rays emanate from the individual elements in the subject and may be analyzed by either of the following means: qualitative recognition of the elements by unique X-ray patterns or quantitative identi? Sensitive and sophisticated laboratory XRF systems have been in use for many years. More recently, the advent of improved detectors and microelectronics, coupled with advanced computer technology, have resulted in portable XRF systems capable of yielding accurate readings on the shop?

Hard-copy printouts of these readings are available. From 1 to 18 elements may be displayed, depending on the equipment design and manufacturer. Eight to ten elements are considered sufficient for precise identi?

Carbon and lowalloy steels are an exception. The XRF method currently does not respond well to elements with an atomic number below 22, and carbon content cannot be determined accurately. Exceptions are series stainless steels and other noncorroding superalloys. The XRF source and detector must rest on the sample or be positioned with respect to the sample in a precisely repeatable manner. Bias and precision may be determined by using standard test blocks of known composition.

Quantitative readings may require from 10 to s. Some sources report that readings may be made in 1 s. Early spectrometers were generally limited to use at? Recent developments in sensors and microelectronics have produced transportable systems that can be used on or adjacent to production lines. In some systems, light from the spark discharge is carried by? In other systems, the? Photomultipliers are used with diffraction gratings to measure the intensities of preselected analytical lines in the spectrum.

The numerical results are displayed in digital form on readouts or printed out in hard copy, or both. In the semiquantitative mode, the information may be displayed on a cathode-ray tube CRT , and red and green lights at the remote sensor indicate whether the test piece lies within the grade acceptance limits. Heavy oxide and alloy-depleted layers must be removed by grinding. The grinding must remove paint, coatings, and rust to present an area for placing the spark-discharge gun that has no cracks or porosity.

The concentration-ratio or intensity-ratio methods described in Practice E , and the calibration procedure described in Practice E , should be followed. This time may be reduced somewhat with faster data acquisition. The spark generator must be held in position for 18 s, limiting the maximum speed for samples with good surfaces. Users of the emission spectrometry method should refer to the instrument reference manuals. Repeatability is very good on standard reference samples.

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ASTM E1476

Want this as a site license? Scope 1. It describes the general requirements, methods, and procedures for the nondestructive identification and sorting of metals. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section Significance and Use 4. This involves the use of standard quality assurance practices and procedures throughout the various stages of manufacturing and processing, at warehouses and materials receiving, and during fabrication and final installation of the product.

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ASTM E1476 PDF

You are on page 1of 13 Search inside document Standard Guide for Metals Identification, Grade Verification, and Sorting1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 3. Terminology 1. It is the 4.

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