ASTM D 4728 PDF

It revises and replaces the previous version of the same international standard, which was published last in but reaffirmed in The modern shipping container is a marvel of standardization. With this ease of transport, the simplified logistics of the shipping process has supported the exchange of goods worldwide. Either within these larger containers or on their own, loaded containers pass throughout the world.

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It revises and replaces the previous version of the same international standard, which was published last in but reaffirmed in The modern shipping container is a marvel of standardization. With this ease of transport, the simplified logistics of the shipping process has supported the exchange of goods worldwide.

Either within these larger containers or on their own, loaded containers pass throughout the world. In continuous motion to their destinations, filled containers are subject to a series of forces, including shock, vibration, and pressure.

Recognizing these forces and adequately preparing the containers for their influence is key to assuring that shipped goods arrive in their original condition. Several ASTM standards deal with testing containers against their expected forces. These tests are intended to approximate the actual damage, or lack thereof, experienced in real life, as these containers undergo complex dynamic stresses during transport.

Because of this, the random vibration tests should be based on representative field data, and actual observed field shipment effects may prove useful for comparison. This standard revision contains several alterations.

PSD stands for power spectral density, an expression of random vibration in terms of mean-square acceleration per unit of frequency.

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ASTM-D4728

More D Approximating the actual damage, or lack of damage, experienced in real life may require subjecting the container and its contents to random vibration tests. In this way, many product and container resonances are simultaneously excited. Therefore, unrealistic fatigue damage due to resonance buildup is minimized.

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ASTM D4728

Approximating the actual damage, or lack of damage, experienced in real life may require subjecting the container and its contents to random vibration tests. In this way, many product and container resonances are simultaneously excited. Therefore, unrealistic fatigue damage due to resonance buildup is minimized. When possible, confidence levels may be improved by comparing laboratory test results with actual field shipment effects. Refer to Practice D for recommended random vibration tests. See Appendix X1 and Appendix X2 for related information. Equivalent tests between sine and random, in a general sense, are difficult to establish due to nonlinearities, damping and product response characteristics.

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