See also: Satipatthana Sutta A traditional method given by the Buddha in the Anapanasati Sutta is to go into the forest and sit beneath a tree and then to simply watch the breath, if the breath is long, to notice that the breath is long, if the breath is short, to notice that the breath is short. When this is accomplished without any counting failure dosha , the practitioner advances to the second step, i. In the fourth step, called" observation" upalaksana , the practitioner discerns that the air breathed in and out as well as form rupa , mind citta , and mental functions caitta ultimately consists of the four great elements. He thus analyzes all the five aggregates. Next follows "the turning away" vivarta which consists of changing the object of observation from the air breathed in and out to "the wholesome roots" of purity kusalamula and ultimately to "the highest mundane dharma".
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Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu X The updated version is freely available at This version of the text might be out of date. Sariputta , Ven. Maha Moggallana , Ven. Maha Kassapa , Ven. Maha Kaccana , Ven. Maha Kotthita , Ven. Maha Kappina , Ven. Maha Cunda , Ven. Revata , Ven. Ananda , and other well-known elder disciples. Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the Pavarana ceremony — the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the community of monks.
Surveying the silent community of monks, he addressed them: "Monks, I am content with this practice. I am content at heart with this practice. So arouse even more intense persistence for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the White Water-lily Month, the fourth month of the rains — the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the community of monks.
Surveying the silent community of monks, he addressed them: "Monks, this assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established on pure heartwood: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly.
The sort of assembly to which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a great gift greater: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly — the sort of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along provisions, in order to see.
He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development. When a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises in one whose persistence is aroused, then rapture as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. When the mind of one who is at ease — his body calmed — becomes concentrated, then concentration as a factor for awakening becomes aroused.
When he carefully watches the mind thus concentrated with equanimity, equanimity as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor for awakening dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.
He develops analysis of qualities as a factor for awakening Notes 1. To the fore parimukham : The Abhidhamma takes an etymological approach to this term, defining it as around pari- the mouth mukham. In the Vinaya, however, it is used in a context Cv. There is also the possibility that the term could be used idiomatically as "to the front," which is how I have translated it here.
The commentaries insist that "body" here means the breath, but this is unlikely in this context, for the next step — without further explanation — refers to the breath as "bodily fabrication.
The step of breathing in and out sensitive to the entire body relates to the many similes in the suttas depicting jhana as a state of whole-body awareness see MN