ANALISIS DE ORINA DE GRAFF PDF

Kizragore This type of analysis is very common in the control and monitoring of diabetic patients. Readers will learn how to handle and preserve the integrity of body fluid specimens and how to keep themselves and their laboratory safe from infectious agents! They also occur if strong oxidizing detergents are present in the specimen container. Any deterioration in liver function reduces its ability to process the recirculated urobilinogen. Self-monitoring with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state.

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Nejar Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The jaundice produced by the accelerated destruction of red blood cells does not produce bilirubinuria, as the high serum bilirubin is found in the unconjugated form and the kidneys are unable to excrete it.

Red blood cells settle to the bottom of the specimen container, and failure to mix the specimen prior to testing ofina a falsely decreased reading.

In contrast, intact red blood cells are lysed when they come in contact with the pad, and the liberated hemoglobin produces an isolated reaction that results in a speckled pattern on the pad. The urine test strip test for white blood cells detects leukocyte esterase, which is present in azurophilic granules of monocytes and granulocytes neutrophiliceosinophilic and basophilic. Retrieved March 13, The reactions that take place in the test strip vary according to the manufacturer, but braff reality there are two reactions that are most frequently used.

Urinary infections can be identified including bacteriuria and pyuria. Retrieved February 09,from Roche Diagnostics. Anaalisis routine screening, if a positive test for leukocytes, blood, protein, nitrite, and a pH greater than 7 is identified, the urine sediment be microscopically analysed to further pinpoint a diagnosis. Many renal and urinary tract diseases may be asymptomatic for a long period of time.

The term ketones or ketone bodies in reality refers to three intermediate products in the metabolism of fatty acids ; acetoneacetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid.

A number of substances interfere with the Ehrlich reaction on the Multistix strip: Highly pigmented urine and contamination of the container with quaternary ammonium compounds, detergents and antiseptics also cause false-positive readings. Non-pathological hematuria can be observed after strenuous exercise and during menstruation.

Hemoglobinuria can be caused by hemolytic anaemia, blood transfusions, extensive burnsthe bite of the recluse spider Loxoscelesinfections and strenuous exercise. The strip is then left to stand for the time necessary for the reactions to occur usually 1 to 2 minutesand finally the colours that anaalisis are compared against the chromatic scale provided by the manufacturer.

Any amount of blood greater than five cells per microliter of urine is considered clinically significant, visual examination cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of blood.

Retrieved 30 March The indoxyl that is liberated combines with a diazonium salt in order to produce a violet coloured azole dye. The measurement of specific gravity should not be confused with the measurement of osmotic concentrationwhich is more related to the number of particles than with their mass. Interpretation of trace readings can be difficult. In this reaction the acetoacetic acid in an alkali medium reacts with the sodium nitroprusside producing a magenta coloured complex: Semi-quantitative values are usually reported as: An increase in the blood concentration of ketone produces a ed imbalancedehydration and if not corrected, acidosis and in the end diabetic coma.

The test can give false positives if strong oxidant or peroxide residues are present on the laboratory material used for the analysis. Regulating diet mainly controls urinary pH, although using medication can also control it. False-positive reactions due to menstrual contamination may be seen. The reactive strips detect nitrite by using the Greiss reaction in which anlaisis nitrite reacts in qnalisis acid medium with an aromatic amine para-arsanilic acid or sulphanilamide in order to form a diazonium salt that in turn reacts with tetrahydrobenzoquinoline to produce a pink azo dye.

Some of the gram negative bacteria species that most commonly cause urinary tract infections Escherichia coliEnterobacterKlebsiellaCitrobacter and Proteus have enzymes that reduce the nitrate present in urine to nitrite. Practical, focused, and reader friendly, this popular text teaches the theoretical and practical knowledge every clinical laboratory scientist needs to handle and analyze non-blood body fluids, and to keep them and their laboratory safe from infectious agents.

False-negative reactions can result when urine with a high specific gravity contains crenated red blood cells that do not lyse when they come in contact with the reagent pad. The test for leukocyte esterase is purely indicative and should not be solely relied on for diagnosis, as it does not replace microscopic or urine culture examinations. Due to its low molecular weight, albumin is the major serum protein found in the plasma, the normal urinary albumin content is low because the majority of albumin presented in the glomerulus is not filtered, and much of the filtered albumin is reabsorbed by the tubules.

Case studies and clinical situations show how work in the classroom translates to work in the lab. The control of urinary ketone is particularly useful in managing and monitoring diabetes mellitus type 1.

Treatment monitoring with the aid of urine test strips allows a health professional to check on the results of the prescribed therapy, and if necessary to introduce any changes into the course of therapy.

The specific gravity of urine is a measure of the density of the substances dissolved in it and it depends on the number of dissolved particles and their mass.

Analysis of the supernatant for blood with a test strip will give a positive if myoglobin is present and a negative if hemoglobin is present. False positive reactions can be due to unusual pigments in the urine for example, yellowy orange phenazopyridine metabolites, indican and the metabolites of the medicine Lodine Etodolac.

Specific liver diseases and haemolytic disorders able to be identified include liver diseaseaccompanied by jaundicecirrhosisurobilinogenuria and bilirubinuria.

Uromodulin produced by the renal tubular epithelial cells and proteins from prostatic, seminal, and vaginal secretions. Depending on the manufacturer, the protein area of the strip contains different chemicals.

When hemolytic disorders occur the amount of unconjugated bilirubin that is present in the blood increases causing an increase in hepatic excretion of conjugated bilirubin, resulting in increased amounts of urobilinogen that in turn causes an increase in reabsorption, recirculation and renal excretion. Bacteria, lymphocytes and epithelial cells from the genitourinary tract do not contain esterases.

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Kajizilkree Rate this book! The nitrite test is not particularly reliable and negative results in the presence of clinical symptoms are not uncommon, meaning that the test should not be taken as conclusive. This protein consists primarily of low-molecular-weight serum proteins that have been filtered by the glomerulus and proteins produced in the genitourinary tract. Under normal conditions nearly all the glucose removed in the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.

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Gardalrajas The presence of blood in the urine is, of all the parameters normally tested, the one that is most closely related with traumatic damage to the kidneys or the genitourinary tract. Microscopic examination of the urinary sediment shows intact red blood cells, but free hemoglobin produced either by hemolytic disorders or lysis of red blood cells is not detected. Ketonuria indicates an insulin deficiency that indicates the need to regulate its dosage. It features more than full-color slides of urine, cerebrospinal, seminal, synovial, and serous fluids, positioned close to the related text. The test used in the urine test strips is based on the reaction of sodium nitroprusside nitroferricyanide.

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