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Robert S. Schechter Professor, Dept. Acid Types and the Chemistry of Their Reactions 3. Stoichiometry of Acid-Sandstone Reactions 3. Acid Fracturing Treatment Design 7. Selection of Variable Design Parameters 58 7. Prediction of Fracture Conductivity and Stimulation Ratio 2 7. Models for Matrix Acidizing 68 8. Description of a Model for Matrix Acidization 68 8. Matrix Acidizing of Sandstones 76 9. Corrosion Inhibitors Payout Period The Series is intended to provide members with an authoritative, up-to-date treatment of the fundamental principles and state of the art in selected fields of technology.
Technical evaluation is provided by the Monograph Review Committee. Below isa listing of those who have been most closely involved with the preparation ofthis book Monograph Coordinators Roscoe C.
Clark, Continental Oil Co. Hardy, Sun Co. Clark, chairman, Continental Oil Co. Strickland, Shell Development Co. Smith, Dowell, Tulsa R. Also, we appreciate the help of various SPE-AIME members and personnel, particularly the Monograph Review Committee, in providing helpful suggestions on organization and editing of the monograph.
Many people have contributed to the successful completion of this monograph; therefore, it is impossible to recognize them all.
Both D. Nierode and E. Novotny of Exxon Production Research Co. During preparation, the manuscript was used as atext fora graduate course at The U. The students taking that course provided many helpful comments and verified example calculations. Finally, this monograph could not have been prepared without the able assistance of the Exxon Production Research Co.
In particular, the efforts of N. Parker and P. Henry were essential Foreword In recent years, stimulation techniques have become increasingly complex and a better understanding of the individual mechanisms that contribute to the over-all treatment effectiveness has evolved, Much of this development has been atthe research level and is not totally assimilated into general field practice.
Accordingly, we have attempted to structure the monograph to serve both groups. Some chapters provide a comprehensive review of the science and technology that serve as bases for understanding the fundamentals of acid stimulation.
Others are written for the field engineer and stress design procedures and the proper selection of fluids and additives.
These procedures employ practices in wide-spread use in the United States and, toa lesser extent, in use throughout the free world. Topics that were covered in detail by G. Howard and C. In particular, the reader interested in field application of acid fracturing techniques should read Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 8 in Hydraulic Fracturing. The reader can then proceed to Chapters 5 and 7 for a discussion of acid fracturing fundamentals and design procedures and to Chapter 9 or 10 for a discussion of the design of matrix acid treatments for sandstone and carbonate formations.
Although Chapters 4, 6, and 8 present the groundwork for design procedures given elsewhere, one should not have to read these chapters before reading the design sections. Wherever possible, examples have been provided to clarify the application of the models or concepts presented in this monograph. In some instances, models used in the examples are not the most comprehensive available since we have limited our use to those that require only simple arithmetic manipulations with a hand calculator.
Throughout the monograph, equations are given in nondimensional form unless otherwise noted. Because of the familiarity of our audience with conventional engineering units. Introduction However one evaluates the history of well stimulation processes, acidizing must be considered among the oldest techniques still in modern use, Only nitro-shooting predates it. Other techniques such as hydraulic fracturing were de- veloped much more recently.
Knowledge of acidizing as well stimulation method began in the last century Earliest records indicate thatthe first acid treatments were probably performed in Herman Frasch, who at the time was chief chemist at Standard Oil Co. Recorded in that brief document are many of the elements of present-day acid treatments. Not as important technically, but of historical interest, is a similar patent employing sul- furicacid, obtained by John W.
Van Dyke, general manager of Solar Refinery, and a close friend of Frasch. For a technique useful for scale removal, Gypsy sought the advice of the Mellon Institute. Blain Wescott reported on behalf of the Jnstitute suggesting the use of, hydrochloric acid as a solvent for the scale. Its use declined, however, in the early "s with the decline in oil prices. Pure had oil property in Michigan and an active exploration program in the area, Dow had brine wells in the same area.
In subsequent discussions eiween Pure and Dow. Finally, Pure proposed acidizing one of its own wells. The test site was decided upon and on Feb. To this acid, 2 gal of an arsenic acid inhibitor were added, at the suggestion of Grebe, to reduce corrosion of the tubing. The acid was transferred from the tank truck to the wellbore by siphoning with a garden hose. About half of the gal of acid was siphoned into the tubing. This was followed by 6 bbl of oil pumped into the tubing with a hand-operated pump after the acid.
The well was shut in over aight and swabbed in the next morning. A large quantity of emulsion was removed, The remaining acid was siphoned into the tubing and displaced by oil flush.
Other wells were later treated with acid, Some responded better than the first," 1. Formation of Acidizing Companies Interest in acidizing spread rapidly and companies were formed to provide this service. The oil well service activities of this group grew rapidly and it became necessary for Dow to form a new subsidiary on Nov.
Taking its name from the Dow Well Service Group, the first two words were combined t0 Dowell, but the pronunciation remained the same; thus, Dowell Inc. He must have envisioned his treatment to be especially useful for forma- tion damage removal because he described the problem to be tueated as follows: "Finely divided sand, other silicious and miscellaneous debris tend to be deposited by the fluid flow- ing toward the base of the well, thereby clogging up the ppores or passages in the geological formation immediately surrounding the base of the well with the result that resis: tance to flow is greatly increased.
It has occurred to me that cone method of rectifying this situation is to dissolve out this deposited material by the use of a suitable reagent. In the case of sand, one suitable reagent is hydrofluoric acid or hydrogen fluoride which reacts with the sand. The principal difficulty with this procedure is that hydrofluoric acid is an extremely dangerous material to handle. The risk encountered in introducing it into an oil well would be so great that I do not believe it has ever actually been attempted.
However, others were already planning to attempt it. In early , A. McPherson from Wichita Falls, Tex. It was 1, ft deep and had 11 feof open-hole producing zone.?
SPE Series - Acidizing Fundamentals